Allama Muhammad Iqbal, commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal, was a philosopher, poet, and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both the Urdu and Persian languages.
Iqbal was born in Sialkot, a city in the Punjab region of British India (now Pakistan), in 1877. He received his early education in Sialkot before attending college in Lahore, where he earned degrees in philosophy, English literature, and Arabic. He then went on to study in Europe, earning a PhD in philosophy from the University of Munich in 1907.
After returning to British India, Iqbal began practicing law, but he also became heavily involved in politics and the Indian independence movement. He was a member of the All India Muslim League, a political party that would later become the driving force behind the creation of Pakistan. Iqbal also served as the president of the league twice.
Iqbal is perhaps best known for his poetry, which reflects his deep interest in philosophy and spirituality. He wrote poetry in both Urdu and Persian, and his works include Kulliyat-e-Iqbal, Bang-i-Dra, Bal-i-Jibril, Zarb-i Kalim, and Armughan-e-Hijaz. He was a prominent member of the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam and wrote poetry in the various newspapers and magazines owned by them.
Iqbal’s poetry and political activism had a profound influence on the Indian independence movement and ultimately the creation of Pakistan. He is considered one of the most important figures in the cultural and intellectual history of Pakistan, and is often referred to as Mufakkir-e-Pakistan (The Thinker of Pakistan), Shair-e-Mashriq (The Poet of the East), and Hakeemlughat (The Sage of Language). Iqbal died on April 21, 1938 in Lahore.